The food industries and agriculture will be in the next period one of the most valuable sectors from European economy. Increasing the competitively using high-tech production and processing technologies and consumers safety by modern risks assessment methods and functional foods will be the future development of the field.
The limits of the production of the agricultural row materials are given by crop technologies in combination with natural resources available. Choosing the right way is difficult and will have influences until to the final consumers. The quality of natural resources must be assessed before starting the new crops. Modern methods are available and almost compulsory in order to reduce the pressure of using pesticides.
Organic farming one of the most difficult to do in the field of crop protection have the advantage of new market trends and European directive. In this way integrated organic farming will increase the benefits and will enrich the initial low incomes generated by smaller productions. Using organic approach the results of the cropping will be addressed to all kind of consumers with no restrictions regarding presence of dangerous compounds.
Pest protection of the agricultural and food products is one of the most difficult challenges. Use of pesticide and other way of protection must be very judicious in order to avoid the exceeding of the maximal legal limits accepted. The continuous adaptation of the pest to the used chemical substances will lead to the increasing of the dosage or ineffectiveness of the classical way of fighting against pests. Integrated pest control concept is the newsiest and most effective way of fighting against pest with maximum effects and minimum issues.
Storing food and agricultural products is the key of ensuring for long time the alimentary resources for human kind. The energetic crises change the approach of storing. The high costs of storing lead to new techniques and technologies like lyophilisation, microencapsulating, stored in modified atmosphere, etc. These methods will be presented in the workshop for food and agricultural products as well.
Glucosinolates (GLS) are nitrogen and sulphur-containing plant secondary metabolites and are the most important bioactive phytochemicals found in cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae family).
The glucosinolates are considered molecular markers of Brassica vegetables. These phytochemicals induces a variety of physiological functions, including antioxidant activity, regulating enzymes and controlling apoptosis and the cell cycle.
Various methods have been used for direct or indirect determination of total glucosinolates and individual glucosinolates. The most suitable technique is to use the HPLC analysis of the enzymatically desulfated glucosinolates.
The concentration and composition of the glucosinolates in different plants can vary greatly. The plant’s genetic background is the major factor determining glucosinolates concentration and composition, although environmental conditions and physiological factors also influence glucosinolates expressions and accumulation.
Food consumption plays two roles in human development: nutrition and disease prevention. Foods provide not only protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and other constituents essential for growth, but also components necessary for prevention of certain diseases. Generally foods are safe, but some human pathologic phenomena can be traced in foods. The causes of these illnesses may be natural constituents of foods or contaminants that have been added for other purposes, from pesticides to food additives.
Worldwide constant increasing of food demand developed a consciousness of quality. This strongly implies research activities regarding the production of proper quality, the preservation of quality during marketing, and thus also the possibilities of evaluating quality parameters and of integrating this into production processes.
Development of technology and mathematical models and methods up-to date reviews are needed to offer an orientation over technological applications at the interface of agriculture, horticulture and food science. Food quality and safety deals now with different levels of accuracy and execution speed compromise with which a procedure can be executed. New procedures for an assessment can be faster than the reference method, but less sensitive. Also the operational sequences can be better organized or not with other analysis systems by automation.
Non-destructive or non-invasive analytical methods in food science have been increasing exponentially during the last half century. Some of these procedures have the potential to deliver real-time results of measurements of different food quality parameters.
This lecture aims to develop an alternative to the classical methods. Non-invasive imagistic method based on the colour image analysis of the images obtained by scanning the food products both at the beginning and at the end of the technological process. There are presented :
all the steps of the optical and mathematical model that generates the digital images in the CIE-L*a*b* colour space from the RGB colour space; also are presented some aspects of image processing for image quality normalization;
intra-method calibration, in order to generate the 1D, 2D or 3D criteria for food quality classification;
inter-method calibration, in order to correlate the non-invasive method with classical invasive method; here will be used first and second order statistical methods too.
There will be presented results of non-invasive imagistic food quality classifications on pork meat, beef meat, fish meat, apples and potatoes.
European legislation is in a continuous adapting process in order to face the new challenges of globalization of obtaining food and agricultural products. The vision of E.U. responsible, based on high expertise and technologies change and unite the laws of the field of workshop. In this way Europe become the most advanced in food and agricultural products regulation.
As we all know, food has vegetal and/or animal origin. The one we are accustomed to eat nowadays has both this origin but more over it has a lot of components who affect the natural quality of the row material. For that it is very important to be familiarised with the concepts of “living food” and “ dead food” in relation of our diet.
Traditional food, either bought or prepared by ourselves, must keep a strong connection with these concepts in order to contribute to our health.
Consumers have become increasingly concerned about food quality and search for "healthy foods". Increasing interest from consumers for organic products demonstrates a growing awareness of the impact of food on health, but also the impact of food industry on the environment. Generally, organic products are made without using chemical products, without genetic intervention and in harmony with nature and the environment.
The organic products are characterized through a higher content of dry matter, respectively in amino acids, vitamins, mineral salts, oligoelements. The organic products are free from heavy metals and pesticides.
It has been proved scientifically that specific nutrition habits could significantly contribute to such disorders. There is ever increasing demand for the development and marketing of food stuff with well documented health-promoting features.
In order to produce health-promoting food stuff, it is important to make use of high quality raw materials and develop new food manufacturing technologies that will not diminish the activity of bio-compounds.
Each of us needs to lead healthier lifestyles. For that it needs to know what food to eat, it needs to understand body balance of nutrition, what living food, dead food and functional food mean.
Living food is a food that spoils quickly is a living food. Fresh fruits and vegetables, milk and cheese, freshly baked breads fall into this category. To get the maximum amount of vitamins, minerals and enzymes your body needs living food. Living food is better than dead food for the environment too, because we are saving energy, raw materials and the amount of eliminate waste decreasing.
It is very well known that our health and with it the quality of our life, is strongly affected by the quality of the ingested food. To be inured with the concept of “living food” has a great importance in that issue.
Dead food is a more resistant product to spoilage, processed and preserved for future purpose.
Functional Food is a natural or processed food that contains known, biologically-active compounds, which when in defined quantative and qualitative amounts provides a clinically proven and documented health benefit, and thus, an important source in the prevention, management and treatment of chronic diseases of the modern age. Food companies can create and market novel foods, or supplement current foods with additions like vitamins, fibre or probiotics.
One must see food as a support of our life and of course, enjoy it. Learning something more about what and how to eat will certainly improve our life quality.
Eating is a very important part of our life either we want or not to accept it. To eat is mandatory for living but for a really good life what and how to eat it is also of great importance.
The issue is not about counting calories but about the origin of them and that is what we are about to teach you.
The global issue of alimentation captured the attention of the international scientific community, because it influences the present situation, as well as the evolution of many other economic, social and political issues of our century. Despite all the past warning signals, the present status of the global alimentation and its immediate perspectives are not reassuring at all. During the last decades, the alimentary issue has become more stringent and acquired new features and dimensions from a qualitative point of view. Being at the beginning a national or regional issue, it has turned into a global issue now.
We consider that there is a direct link between food security and food crisis. The lack of food security can generate food crisis. The food crisis is a phenomenon affecting, generally, the developing countries and countries in transition. In the developed countries the phenomenon of food crisis is less spread and aims mostly at the population having low income or socially assisted. In the developing countries crisis affects wide sections of the population.